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Following questions and answers are all new published by EC-Council Official Exam Center: https://www.lead2pass.com/312-50v9.html

QUESTION 181
A certified ethical hacker (CEH) is approached by a friend who believes her husband is cheating. She offers to pay to break into her husband’s email account in order to find proof so she can take him to court. What is the ethical response?

A.    Say no; the friend is not the owner of the account.
B.    Say yes; the friend needs help to gather evidence.
C.    Say yes; do the job for free.
D.    Say no; make sure that the friend knows the risk she’s asking the CEH to take.

Answer: A

QUESTION 182
This international organization regulates billions of transactions daily and provides security guidelines to protect personally identifiable information (PII). These security controls provide a baseline and prevent low- level hackers sometimes known as script kiddies from causing a data breach.
Which of the following organizations is being described?

A.    Payment Card Industry (PCI)
B.    Center for Disease Control (CDC)
C.    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
D.    International Security Industry Organization (ISIO)

Answer: A
Explanation:
The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) is a proprietary information security standard for organizations that handle branded credit cards from the major card schemes including Visa, MasterCard, American Express, Discover, and JCB. The PCI DSS standards are very explicit about the requirements for the back end storage and access of PII (personally identifiable information).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Payment_Card_Industry_Data_Security_Standard

QUESTION 183
Your company performs penetration tests and security assessments for small and medium-sized business in the local area. During a routine security assessment, you discover information that suggests your client is involved with human trafficking.
What should you do?

A.    Immediately stop work and contact the proper legal authorities.
B.    Copy the data to removable media and keep it in case you need it.
C.    Confront the client in a respectful manner and ask her about the data.
D.    Ignore the data and continue the assessment until completed as agreed.

Answer: A
Explanation:

QUESTION 184
Jesse receives an email with an attachment labeled “Court_Notice_21206.zip”. Inside the zip file is a file named “Court_Notice_21206.docx.exe” disguised as a word document. Upon execution, a window appears stating, “This word document is corrupt.” In the background, the file copies itself to Jesse APPDATA\local directory and begins to beacon to a C2 server to download additional malicious binaries.
What type of malware has Jesse encountered?

A.    Trojan
B.    Worm
C.    Macro Virus
D.    Key-Logger

Answer: A
Explanation:
In computing, Trojan horse, or Trojan, is any malicious computer program which is used to hack into a computer by misleading users of its true intent. Although their payload can be anything, many modern forms act as a backdoor, contacting a controller which can then have unauthorized access to the affected computer.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trojan_horse_(computing)

QUESTION 185
Which tool allows analysts and pen testers to examine links between data using graphs and link analysis?

A.    Maltego
B.    Cain & Abel
C.    Metasploit
D.    Wireshark

Answer: A
Explanation:
Maltego is proprietary software used for open-source intelligence and forensics, developed by Paterva.
Maltego focuses on providing a library of transforms for discovery of data from open sources, and visualizing that information in a graph format, suitable for link analysis and data mining.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maltego

QUESTION 186
While using your bank’s online servicing you notice the following string in the URL bar:

http:// www.MyPersonalBank.com/account?id=368940911028389&Damount=10980&Camount=21″

You observe that if you modify the Damount & Camount values and submit the request, that data on the web page reflect the changes.
Which type of vulnerability is present on this site?

A.    Web Parameter Tampering
B.    Cookie Tampering
C.    XSS Reflection
D.    SQL injection

Answer: A
Explanation:
The Web Parameter Tampering attack is based on the manipulation of parameters exchanged between client and server in order to modify application data, such as user credentials and permissions, price and quantity of products, etc. Usually, this information is stored in cookies, hidden form fields, or URL Query Strings, and is used to increase application functionality and control.
https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Web_Parameter_Tampering

QUESTION 187
Perspective clients want to see sample reports from previous penetration tests.
What should you do next?

A.    Decline but, provide references.
B.    Share full reports, not redacted.
C.    Share full reports with redactions.
D.    Share reports, after NDA is signed.

Answer: A
Explanation:
Penetration tests data should not be disclosed to third parties.

QUESTION 188
During a blackbox pen test you attempt to pass IRC traffic over port 80/TCP from a compromised web enabled host. The traffic gets blocked; however, outbound HTTP traffic is unimpeded.
What type of firewall is inspecting outbound traffic?

A.    Application
B.    Circuit
C.    Stateful
D.    Packet Filtering

Answer: C

QUESTION 189
Jimmy is standing outside a secure entrance to a facility. He is pretending to have a tense conversation on his cell phone as an authorized employee badges in. Jimmy, while still on the phone, grabs the door as it begins to close.
What just happened?

A.    Piggybacking
B.    Masqurading
C.    Phishing
D.    Whaling

Answer: A
Explanation:
In security, piggybacking refers to when a person tags along with another person who is authorized to gain entry into a restricted area, or pass a certain checkpoint.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piggybacking_(security)

QUESTION 190
You’ve gained physical access to a Windows 2008 R2 server which has an accessible disc drive. When you attempt to boot the server and log in, you are unable to guess the password. In your tool kit you have an Ubuntu 9.10 Linux LiveCD. Which Linux based tool has the ability to change any user’s password or to activate disabled Windows accounts?

A.    CHNTPW
B.    Cain & Abel
C.    SET
D.    John the Ripper

Answer: A
Explanation:
chntpw is a software utility for resetting or blanking local passwords used by Windows NT, 2000, XP, Vista, 7, 8 and 8.1. It does this by editing the SAM database where Windows stores password hashes.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chntpw

QUESTION 191
An attacker has installed a RAT on a host. The attacker wants to ensure that when a user attempts to go to “www.MyPersonalBank.com”, that the user is directed to a phishing site.
Which file does the attacker need to modify?

A.    Hosts
B.    Sudoers
C.    Boot.ini
D.    Networks

Answer: A
Explanation:
The hosts file is a computer file used by an operating system to map hostnames to IP addresses. The hosts file contains lines of text consisting of an IP address in the first text field followed by one or more host names.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hosts_(file)

QUESTION 192
After trying multiple exploits, you’ve gained root access to a Centos 6 server. To ensure you maintain access, what would you do first?

A.    Create User Account
B.    Disable Key Services
C.    Disable IPTables
D.    Download and Install Netcat

Answer: A

QUESTION 193
What is the Shellshock bash vulnerability attempting to do on an vulnerable Linux host?

env x=`(){ :;};echo exploit` bash -c ‘cat /etc/passwd’

A.    Display passwd content to prompt
B.    Removes the passwd file
C.    Changes all passwords in passwd
D.    Add new user to the passwd file

Answer: A
Explanation:
To extract private information, attackers are using a couple of techniques. The simplest extraction attacks are in the form:
() {:;}; /bin/cat /etc/passwd
That reads the password file /etc/passwd, and adds it to the response from the web server. So an attacker injecting this code through the Shellshock vulnerability would see the password file dumped out onto their screen as part of the web page returned.
https://blog.cloudflare.com/inside-shellshock/

QUESTION 194
Using Windows CMD, how would an attacker list all the shares to which the current user context has access?

A.    NET USE
B.    NET CONFIG
C.    NET FILE
D.    NET VIEW

Answer: A
Explanation:
Connects a computer to or disconnects a computer from a shared resource, or displays information about computer connections. The command also controls persistent net connections. Used without parameters, net use retrieves a list of network connections.
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb490717.aspx

QUESTION 195
A common cryptographical tool is the use of XOR. XOR the following binary values:

10110001
00111010

A.    10001011
B.    11011000
C.    10011101
D.    10111100

Answer: A
Explanation:
The XOR gate is a digital logic gate that implements an exclusive or; that is, a true output (1/HIGH) results if one, and only one, of the inputs to the gate is true. If both inputs are false (0/LOW) or both are true, a false output results. XOR represents the inequality function, i.e., the output is true if the inputs are not alike otherwise the output is false. A way to remember XOR is “one or the other but not both”.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/XOR_gate

QUESTION 196
Which of the following is the successor of SSL?

A.    TLS
B.    RSA
C.    GRE
D.    IPSec

Answer: A
Explanation:
Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), both of which are frequently referred to as ‘SSL’, are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_Layer_Security

QUESTION 197
You are attempting to man-in-the-middle a session. Which protocol will allow you to guess a sequence number?

A.    TCP
B.    UPD
C.    ICMP
D.    UPX

Answer: A
Explanation:
At the establishment of a TCP session the client starts by sending a SYN-packet (SYN=synchronize) with a sequence number. To hijack a session it is required to send a packet with a right seq-number, otherwise they are dropped.
https://www.exploit-db.com/papers/13587/

QUESTION 198
Your team has won a contract to infiltrate an organization. The company wants to have the attack be as realistic as possible; therefore, they did not provide any information besides the company name.
What should be the first step in security testing the client?

A.    Reconnaissance
B.    Enumeration
C.    Scanning
D.    Escalation

Answer: A
Explanation:
Phases of hacking
Phase 1–Reconnaissance
Phase 2–Scanning
Phase 3–Gaining Access
Phase 4–Maintaining Access
Phase 5–Covering Tracks
Phase 1: Passive and Active Reconnaissance
Passive reconnaissance involves gathering information regarding a potential target without the targeted individual’s or company’s knowledge.
Active reconnaissance involves probing the network to discover individual hosts, IP addresses, and services on the network.
http://hack-o-crack.blogspot.se/2010/12/five-stages-of-ethical-hacking.html

QUESTION 199
Which regulation defines security and privacy controls for Federal information systems and organizations?

A.    NIST-800-53
B.    PCI-DSS
C.    EU Safe Harbor
D.    HIPAA

Answer: A
Explanation:
NIST Special Publication 800-53, “Security and Privacy Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations,” provides a catalog of security controls for all U.S. federal information systems except those related to national security.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NIST_Special_Publication_800-53

QUESTION 200
How does the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) work?

A.    It sends a request packet to all the network elements, asking for the MAC address from a specific IP.
B.    It sends a reply packet to all the network elements, asking for the MAC address from a specific IP.
C.    It sends a reply packet for a specific IP, asking for the MAC address.
D.    It sends a request packet to all the network elements, asking for the domain name from a specific IP.

Answer: A
Explanation:
When an incoming packet destined for a host machine on a particular local area network arrives at a gateway, the gateway asks the ARP program to find a physical host or MAC address that matches the IP address. The ARP program looks in the ARP cache and, if it finds the address, provides it so that the packet can be converted to the right packet length and format and sent to the machine. If no entry is found for the IP address, ARP broadcasts a request packet in a special format to all the machines on the LAN to see if one machine knows that it has that IP address associated with it. A machine that recognizes the IP address as its own returns a reply so indicating. ARP updates the ARP cache for future reference and then sends the packet to the MAC address that replied.
http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/Address-Resolution-Protocol-ARP

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